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For the purposes of avoiding plagiarism, the key is simply to make sure sources are clearly cited one way or another. Losing points for style may not be ideal, but it beats being brought up on plagiarism charges.
Something new happened in Huck Finn that had never happened in American literature before. It was a book, as many critics have observed, that served as a Declaration of Independence from the genteel English novel tradition. Huckleberry Finn allowed a different kind of writing to happen: a clean, crisp, no-nonsense, earthy vernacular kind of writing that jumped off the printed page with unprecedented immediacy and energy; it was a book that talked.
Huck’s voice, combined with Twain’s satiric genius, changed the shape of fiction in America, and African-American voices had a great deal to do with making it what it was. Huck Finn changed the shape of fiction in America. It allowed for a new type of writing to happen, independent of the genteel English novel tradition.
It jumps off the page with immediacy and energy. And it crucially incorporates the voice of African-Americans. A big part of what makes Huck Finn such an important literary landmark, according to Fishkin, is the degree to which it freed American writing from the constraints of British novel, incorporating earthy vernacular and African-American voices.
Huck Finn is an important landmark in American literature because, in using the earthy vernacular and African-American voices, it cast off the constraints for the genteel British novel. Fishkin cites Huck Finn as an important landmark in American literature because, in using the earthy vernacular and African-American voices, it cast off the constraints for the genteel British novel.
Indeed, most plagiarism — the accidental or unintentional cases — happens exactly when one would expect it to. Students are anxious about their grades, pressured by deadlines, unsure of how to properly cite, disorganized in their research, and doing their best to put the final touches on a paper at the last minute. Every school has a student handbook and most are accessible online. Find out how your school defines plagiarism, what the penalties are, and what other resources might be available.
For example, more and more colleges and universities have writing centers that can help students get a handle on the issues surrounding plagiarism and the right way to write and cite.
Realistically weigh each assignment and understand that getting an undergraduate degree is a process. It may be possible to pull a successful all-nighter if all you have to do is write a five or ten page paper. But research is another thing altogether. Start laying the groundwork early for each assignment by getting the reading and research done early on. Online research and the ability to cut and paste text from various sources may create opportunities for accidental plagiarism, but they can also offer some easy solutions.
Being able to show where you got uncited information after the fact can actually be a mitigating factor in cases where plagiarism is alleged. Ask yourself where you got specific ideas, concepts, and information. Is it something you read? Did you copy or cut and paste any text into your paper? If there are any lingering doubts, provide a citation. There is a persistent and broad perception among educators that plagiarism is indeed on the rise, and plentiful anecdotal information to support that contention.
Beyond that, there is an increasing body of research evidence that support the contention that plagiarism remains a pressing problem for students making the transition from high school to college.
A Josephson Institute Center for Youth Ethics survey of 43, high school students found that one in three admitted to using the Internet to plagiarize an assignment. This percentage has held steady since , when the first major survey on college cheating was conducted. Plagiarism can be a complex issue.
Below are some common questions that often cross the minds of many students. Technically, yes. Therefore, copying the work of another student for an assignment that is turned in does constitute plagiarism.
Plagiarism tends to reflect a lack of creative thinking; making up a source or a quote may be the result of a surfeit of creativity. This is a gray area. Schools may prohibit students from submitting the same assignment or piece of writing in more than one class without prior approval of the professors, and this can fall under the general heading of plagiarism.
Full disclosure is generally the best policy in situations where there might be a conflict. For example, if you want to use work or writing previously done for a class on British history in a Shakespeare class, you should check with the professor or at least include a footnote or endnote with the passage in question.
There is no set number of words that would make a difference in respect to plagiarism. Its analogue in the legal domain is copyright infringement, which can lead to civil litigation and substantial penalties. Because copyright infringement is unlikely in an academic setting, particularly if no one is profiting from the use of portions of a text, the answer depends on the assignment and the purposes of the citation.
Quoting from half of the poem may even be too much. This is a tricky one. While it may not seem fair, an incorrect citation does mean that you have failed to properly identify the author and the source.
And that is a kind of plagiarism. But policies on this will vary from class to class and professor to professor. This is an unsettled question. For practical purposes, hyperlinks are gaining traction in the realm of online publishing as a means of attribution.
But, it can be problematic in cases where the link becomes inactive. There are several online resources available to detect, as well as prevent, plagiarism. Whether you are a student, educator, or concerned parent, the following list of resources provides helpful information and tools for those interested in learning more about plagiarism and how to avoid it.
This site helps researchers and professionals properly site sources used. The platform also provides tools and information to help educators teach their students how to be effective researchers. This reference manager allows users to search databases, collect PDFs, organize sources, build and format bibliographies, and share research.
Mendeley is a free reference manager that allows students and researchers to cite as they write, as well as read and annotate PDFs on any device. Purdue OWL offers guides and information on research and proper citation. An online, free, and easy-to-use tool to help users collect, organize, cite, and share research sources. Zotero can interact with all types of online resources and allows users to automatically extract and save bibliographic references.
A national association of college faculty with professional experience in writing program and curricula, the CWPA includes a section on advice for students concerned about plagiarizing, as well as links to other online assets and tutorials. Includes a comprehensive overview of how to properly use sources in academic work, including an in-depth section on different kinds of plagiarism and how to avoid common pitfalls in college writing.
Developed by Turnitin, iThenticate is the leading provider of professional plagiarism detection. This tool can be used by editors, authors, and researchers to evaluate originality. Text is compared against a database of more than 50 billion web pages and million works. An information website for students who would like to know more about plagiarism and how to avoid it.
The site also includes a section on citing sources, creating footnotes and bibliographies, paraphrasing, and using quotes properly. This free online tool allows students, teachers, publishers, and website owners to search assignments for instances of plagiarism. Drawing on the search capabilities of the Internet, as well as a proprietary database of college papers, Turnitin gives students and professors a report that highlights portions of an assignment that are not original work and thus may be plagiarized.
Provided by Pearson, this online tool can be used as a plagiarism checker, as well as a grammar checker. The site notes that the tool is used by both high school and college students and was developed based on feedback from various instructors. Although this tool utilizes the same search database as Turnitin, the main differences are that WriteCheck identifies potential unintended plagiarism and does not find a matching source and WriteCheck papers are not added to a student database of papers.
Adelphi University created a guide on plagiarism specifically for faculty. The guide includes resources and information and focuses on improved classroom instruction—rather than surveillance—in order to prevent plagiarism and cheating. MIT offers basic information on how teachers can prevent plagiarism.
In addition to using tools to detect incorrect copying, find out what teachers and professors can do to prevent plagiarism in the first place. Washington State University has an entire section on its website dedicated to plagiarism, including teaching strategies for professors.
WSU notes that poorly constructed assignments can sometimes be the reason students submit low quality work or plagiarize and cheat. Educators can read more about the role of assignment design when it comes to plagiarism and what they can do help prevent academic dishonesty. This free, easy-to-use online tool compares copied-and-pasted phrases against resources found in Google and Yahoo.
Users can indicate whether they are a teacher or a student for tailor instructions and results. Both students and teachers can take advantage of this online plagiarism detection tool. In addition to analyzing the originality of a text, the platform also offers various tools to help teachers train students to do quality, original academic writing.
This site serves as a reading and language arts resource for educators, parents, and afterschool professionals. Educators can find information and tools on detecting plagiarism as well as lesson plans for teaching students about plagiarism. Created by DePaul University, this resource emphasizes approaching plagiarism as an opportunity for learning.
This online tool can be used to detect plagiarism as well as be an educational tool to prevent it. Explore these resources to help you make informed decisions and prepare for whatever is thrown your way. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. The topics of the SMSRs were mainly in health and varied widely, from health care to public health.
Some were on information sciences, management, education, and research. The first authors of the SMSRs came from 28 different countries. Authors described various reasons for performing SMSRs that fall into the following eight categories: a nature of the literature on a topic—to adapt the review method because of the limited evidence on the topic or absence of RCTs, b complexity of the phenomenon—to address a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, c broad coverage—to provide broader perspective and cover a wide range of purposes, d comprehensiveness—to provide a complete picture and deduce the maximum information from the literature, e thorough understanding—to gain better and detailed understanding of a phenomenon, f complementarity—to address different review questions e.
A variety of synthesis methods were used in the included reviews. Based on the sequence and integration concepts, two main types of synthesis designs were identified Fig. Within the convergent synthesis design, three subtypes were found: data-based, results-based, and parallel-results convergent synthesis designs. These synthesis designs were cross tabulated with the three types of synthesis methods qualitative, quantitative, and mixed. This led to a total of 12 possible synthesis strategies that are represented in Table 6.
Reviews were found for eight of these possibilities. Typology of synthesis design in mixed studies reviews. QL qualitative, QT quantitative. Convergent synthesis design: In this design, the quantitative and qualitative evidence is collected and analyzed during the same phase of the research process in a parallel or a complementary manner.
Three subtypes were identified based on where the integration occurred. Data-based convergent synthesis design Fig. In this design, all included studies are analyzed using the same synthesis method and results are presented together. Since only one synthesis method is used for all evidence, data transformation is involved e. This design usually addressed one review question. Among the SMSRs in this design, three main objectives were found.
The first category sought to describe the findings of the included studies, and the synthesis methods ranged from summarizing each study to grouping main findings. The review questions were generally broad similar to a scoping review such as what is known about a specific topic. The second category consisted of SMSRs that sought to identify and define main concepts or themes using a synthesis method such as qualitative content analysis or thematic synthesis.
The review questions were generally more specific such as identifying the main barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a program or types of impact. Results-based convergent synthesis design Fig. In this design, the qualitative and quantitative evidence is analyzed and presented separately but integrated using another synthesis method.
The integration could consist of comparing or juxtaposing the findings of qualitative and quantitative evidence using tables and matrices or reanalyzing evidence in light of the results of both syntheses. For example, Harden and Thomas [ 6 ] suggest performing a quantitative synthesis e.
Then, the results of both syntheses are combined in a third synthesis. This type of design usually addresses an overall review question with subquestions. Parallel-results convergent design Fig. In this design, qualitative and quantitative evidence is analyzed and presented separately. The integration occurs during the interpretation of results in the Discussion section.
Some of these SMSRs included two or more complementary review questions. For example, health technology assessments evaluate several dimensions such as clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability of an intervention. The evidence of each dimension is reviewed separately and brought together in the discussion and recommendations.
Sequential synthesis design Fig. It involves a two-phase approach where the data collection and analysis of one type of evidence occur after and are informed by the collection and analysis of the other type. This design usually addressed one overall review question with subquestions and both syntheses complemented each other. For example, in a review aiming at identifying the obstacles to treatment adherence, the qualitative synthesis provided a list of barriers and the quantitative synthesis reported the prevalence of these barriers and knowledge gaps barriers for which prevalence was not estimated [ 37 ].
The number of published SMSRs has considerably increased in the past few years. In a previous review of reviews in , Pluye et al. This shows that there is an increasing interest for this type of review and warrants the need for more methodological development in this field. In accordance with the literature on mixed methods research, two main types of synthesis designs were identified in this review of reviews: convergent and sequential synthesis designs. Three subtypes of convergent synthesis were found: data-based convergent, results-based, and parallel-results convergent synthesis designs.
The data-based convergent design was more frequently used probably because it is easier to perform, especially for a descriptive purpose. The other synthesis designs might be more complex but could allow for greater analytical depth and breadth of the literature on a specific topic.
Also, focusing the analysis on the concepts of convergent and sequential designs allowed us to clarify and refine their definitions. Considering that the focus of the analysis was the synthesis process in SMSRs, the literature on process studies especially in the fields of management provides insight into these concepts.
First, in line with Langley et al. Researchers are working forward in a non-linear manner guided by a cognitive representation of new data-based synthesis or results-based synthesis or interpretation of results to be created. Second, in line with Van de Ven [ 39 ], a sequential synthesis design can be defined, according to a developmental perspective phase 1 informing phase 2; phase 2 building on the results of phase 1 , as a change of focus at the level of data or synthesis over time and as a cognitive transition into a new phase e.
The synthesis designs found in this review of reviews reflect those suggested by Sandelowski et al. In this review of reviews, we used the mixed methods concepts and terminology because they account for the integration that may be present at the level of data, results, interpretation, or design. As in Heyvaert et al. In Heyvaert et al. This was not done in this review of reviews because measuring or documenting the dominance of a method is difficult given the influences of multiple factors power, resources, expertise, time, training, and worldviews of each research team member, among other factors.
Also, in Heyvaert et al. In this review of reviews, the focus was put on where the integration occurred. Therefore, this review of reviews resulted in respectively four and three types of synthesis designs and methods, which led to propose 12 synthesis strategies, as compared to 18 in Heyvaert et al.
In Frantzen and Fetters [ 40 ], three main types of convergent designs are suggested see Table 1. Similarly, this review of reviews also found qualitative, quantitative, or mixed convergent synthesis design types. However, no distinction was made during the analysis between SMSRs including only qualitative and quantitative studies basic type and those also including mixed methods studies advanced type because this review of reviews aimed at defining ideal types of synthesis designs.
The paper written by Frantzen and Fetters [ 40 ] went into deeper analysis of convergent design to provide detailed information on the steps to follow to integrate qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies. Some SMSRs using sequential synthesis design were found in our sample of reviews. Pluye and Hong [ 10 ] suggested using the sequential exploratory or explanatory designs.
In the exploratory sequential design, a qualitative synthesis is performed first and results inform the subsequent quantitative synthesis.
Conversely, in an explanatory sequential design, the quantitative synthesis is done first and informs the subsequent qualitative synthesis. In this review of reviews, the sequence was defined as the results of one phase informing the other not limited to the order of the syntheses and no review was classified as sequential explanatory. In addition, 12 SMSRs performing only qualitative syntheses were found and could not be classified as exploratory or explanatory. For the sake of parsimony, we did not make a distinction between exploratory and explanatory sequential synthesis designs.
In light of this review of reviews and the literature on mixed methods research, four complementary key recommendations can be made regarding the title, justification, synthesis methods, and the integration of qualitative and quantitative data. First, researchers should explicitly state in the title that the review included qualitative and quantitative evidence.
Various terms are used to designate this type of review. The term mixed has been used in the mixed methods literature to designate primary research designs combining qualitative and quantitative approaches [ 23 ].
In the field of review, mixing qualitative and quantitative evidence can be seen at two levels: study level and synthesis level [ 22 ]. Pluye et al. This name focuses on the study level and does not prescribe a specific synthesis method.
Others have suggested labelling this type of review as mixed methods review [ 6 , 22 ] wherein mixing occurs at both the level of the study and the synthesis. Another popular term is integrative review proposed by Whittemore and Knafl [ 5 ].
Integrative review is described as a type of literature review to synthesize the results of research, methods, or theories using a narrative analysis [ 41 ].
Currently, all these terms are used interchangeably without a clear distinction [ 40 ]. Second, researchers should provide a clear justification for performing a SMSR and describe the synthesis design used. This lack of justification for using qualitative and quantitative evidence is also found in the literature on mixed methods research [ 42 ]. The rationale will influence the review questions and the choice of the synthesis design.
For example, if quantitative and qualitative evidence is used for corroboration purpose, the convergent synthesis design may be more relevant. On the other hand, when they are used in complementarity such as using the quantitative studies to generalize qualitative findings or using qualitative studies to interpret, explain, or provide more insight to some quantitative findings, the sequential synthesis design may be more appropriate.
Third, results of this review of reviews suggest a need to recommend that researchers describe their synthesis methods and cite methodological references. Various synthesis methods have been developed over the past decade [ 13 , 32 , 33 , 43 ]. Meta-analysis is the best known synthesis method to aggregate findings in reviews, especially for clinical effectiveness questions. However, when this method is not possible, researchers tend to omit describing the synthesis.
In some SMSRs, narrative analysis corresponded to summarizing each included study. In others, it consisted in grouping the different findings of included studies into main categories and summarizing the evidence of each category. Still, others followed Popay et al. Hence, in addition to naming the synthesis method, we recommend that reviews should provide a clear description of what was done to synthesize the data and add methodological references.
This will improve transparency of the review process, which is an essential quality of systematic reviews. Fourth, researchers should describe how the data were integrated and discuss the insight gained from this process. Integration is an inherent component of mixed methods research [ 15 ], and careful attention must be paid to how integration is done and reported to enhance the value of a review.
The synthesis designs outline that can provide guidance on how to integrate data Fig. Also, the discussion should include more than a simple wrap-up of results. It should clearly reflect on the added value and insight gained of combining qualitative and quantitative evidence into a review.
The search strategy used was not comprehensive; thus, not all SMSRs were identified in this review of reviews. Indeed, the search was limited to six databases mainly in health and no hand searching was performed. As this review of reviews deals with methods, citation tracking of included SMSRs would not have provided additional relevant references.
To ensure a manageable sample size, selection of included reviews was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles. We acknowledge that the sample of included reviews might not include some innovative developments in this field, given that some recent SMSRs may be reported in other types of publications e.
Finally, the synthesis methods were not classified as aggregative and configurative [ 45 , 46 ]. As mentioned in Gough et al. To avoid this confusion, the terms qualitative and quantitative synthesis methods were preferred.
Moreover, these terms were used to align with the mixed methods research terminology. Yet, as discussed in the Methods section, the interpretation of some synthesis methods used in this review of reviews can be debatable. The field of SMSR is still young, though rapidly evolving. This review of reviews focused on how the qualitative and quantitative evidence is synthesized and integrated in SMSRs and suggested a typology of synthesis designs.
The analysis of this literature also highlighted a lack of transparency in reporting how data were synthesized and a lack of consistency in the terminology used. Some avenues for future research can be suggested. First, there is a need to reach consensus on the terminology and definition of SMSRs. Moreover, given the wide range of approaches to synthesis, clear guidance and training are required regarding which synthesis methods to use and when and how they should be used.
Also, future research should focus on the development, validation, and reliability testing of quality appraisal criteria and standards of high-quality SMSRs. Health Technol Assess. Synthesising quantitative and qualitative research in evidence-based patient information. J Epidemiol Community Health. Evidence-based public health: moving beyond randomized trials.
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